Clinical Neurophysiology is a medical speciality that began in Spain in the first half of the 20th century. It has been recognised as an independent medical speciality since the 1978 Royal Decree regulating medical specialities.

Clinical Neurophysiology specialises in the functional examination of the nervous system for the purposes of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic guidance, always based on highly specialised technology. It includes studying and assessing the central and peripheral nervous system, including the nervous component of the sense organs and the muscular system, in both normal and pathological conditions. It is organised in five key areas: Electroencephalography (EEG), Sleep Pathology and Polysomnography (PSG), Electromyography (EMG), Evoked Potentials (EP) and Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring (INPM).

This requires the degree of Medical Specialist in Clinical Neurophysiology, which in turn requires a degree in Medicine and a four-year training period in the medical residency system in health institutions and centres accredited to provide the relevant training (Royal Decree 127/84).

Our speciality encompasses all nervous system pathologies, and we work in close collaboration to form multidisciplinary teams with other specialities. The primary or secondary involvement of the nervous system is included within most medical and surgical specialities (paediatrics, traumatology, neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, rheumatology, pneumology, internal medicine, rehabilitation, otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology, intensive care medicine, legal medicine, occupational medicine, etc.), which means they all require neurophysiological examinations, making clinical neurophysiology a central service.

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