Like other medical specialities, this multidisciplinary field has undergone a significant transformation due to the remarkable technological and scientific progress of recent years. The Endocrinology and Nutrition field now offers perspectives of enormous interest and presents an ongoing challenge for practitioners, demanding continuous study, innovation and research. This speciality encompasses a wide clinical range, covering the study of endocrine system physiology and pathology, metabolism of nutritional substances, as well as natural and artificial nutrition. It also looks to promote health, with high impact socio-health repercussions, by preventing diseases related to diet and the pathological consequences of its disorders, many of which, such as diabetes mellitus and obesity, are considered one of the greatest threats in the 21st century.

Endocrinology and Nutrition has been one of the pioneering branches of medicine in clinical and basic research. Here, we should make particular mention of one of our best Spanish physicians, Gregorio Marañón, whose endocrinological research and population studies led to great advances, including the treatment and prevention of endemic goitre in underdeveloped areas. Endocrinological research aims to understand molecular mechanisms of the intercellular relationship and the "dialogue" between the different tissues of the organism, and their interdependencies in health and disease states. The development of drugs specifically targeting cell receptors, enzymatic reactions or intracellular signalling pathways represents one of the diverse areas of research in our field, which can be applied across clinical specialities from Internal Medicine to other medical disciplines. Particularly notable among the multiple lines of research currently being developed is differentiating pancreatic beta cells from pluripotential cells, the success of which will represent a new milestone in treating type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Endocrinology is a speciality with a long tradition. It started in the mid-nineteenth century with the study of secretions of internal glands and the description of diseases caused by excessive or insufficient hormonal secretion. In the 1920s, endocrinology saw a rapid advance with the discovery of insulin. Another key event was the development of radioimmunoassay from 1959 onwards, which made it possible to quantify the different hormones. Since then, the accumulation of knowledge has been incessant. New hormones and new mechanisms of hormonal action continue to be discovered. Genomic and proteomic studies are opening up new frontiers in knowledge of endocrinological diseases, while allowing early diagnosis and preventive treatments. In this regard, endocrinologists are introducing imaging techniques that we use in consultation to study thyroid disease more specifically.

Diabetes mellitus is a widespread condition, and scientific progress in prevention and treatment is helping us to improve quality of life and longevity for our patients. In this sense, we can include not only drugs but also insulin infusion devices or blood glucose measurement devices that are much more accurate and comfortable for the patient. New techniques for isolating and cultivating pancreatic islets are already a reality and open up therapeutic perspectives for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Obesity is another pathology frequently encountered in the clinic due to its impact on the development of numerous other diseases, therefore requiring a comprehensive approach ranging from prevention and medical treatment through to surgical techniques. In this area, we offer specialised consultations with endocrinologists in order to manage these patients in a multidisciplinary team in collaboration with the other specialities involved (e.g. general surgery, psychiatry, pneumology, rehabilitation, etc.); we also have great experience in treating this pathology in group or individual sessions with nutritionists who individualise the treatment to achieve optimal results.

Nutrition is no longer a young discipline and its clinical practice is becoming more and more important in hospitals, not only in hospitalised patients but also in pathologies in outpatients. Disease-related malnutrition is a cause of increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs in society. Multimodal rehabilitation of oncology patients is now producing remarkable outcomes in oncological surgery.

Fundación Jiménez Díaz's Endocrinology Service counts on highly qualified professionals in all areas of the speciality (Endocrinology, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity and Nutrition), as well as the progressive implementation of techniques such as treating diabetes with insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitoring techniques, thyroid ultrasound, fine needle aspiration for the study of thyroid cells, and collaboration with other services for techniques that are only performed in certain hospitals, such as catheterisation of petrosal sinuses or adrenal veins.

Areas of the speciality:

  • Hypothalamus and pituitary diseases.
  • Thyroid pathology.
  • Parathyroid pathology. Phosphocalcic metabolism disorders. Osteoporosis.
  • Pathology of the adrenal glands.
  • Gonads. Menopause. Hirsutism.
  • Gender dysphoria.
  • Growth and development disorders.
  • Performance of endocrine-metabolic functional tests.
  • Study of hypoglycaemia.
  • Diabetes:
    • Basic and advanced diabetes education.
    • Diabetes and pregnancy.
    • Diabetic foot.
    • Insulin pumps.
    • Blood glucose measurement systems.
    • Obesity:
      • Non-surgical obesity.
      • Surgical obesity.
      • Nutrition:
        • Assessment, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition.
        • Diets for patients with special requirements.
        • Assessment of dysphagia.
        • Home enteral or parenteral nutrition.
        • Design of hospital diet code.
        • Eating disorders.
        • Dyslipidemia. Alterations in plasma lipoproteins and other cardiovascular risk factors.

Latest care:

  • Multidisciplinary Obesity Unit.
  • Complicated non-surgical obesity specialist consultation.
  • Group strategy for non-surgical complicated obesity.
  • Group consultation on non-surgical approach to obesity.
  • Group consultation for bariatric pre-surgery care.
  • Insulin infuser (pump) specialist consultations.
  • Nursing consultation for management of interstitial blood glucose meters.
  • Non-face-to-face gestational diabetes consultation.
  • Pituitary disease specialist consultation.
  • Nutritionist consultation for FODMAP diets.
  • Gender dysphoria specialist consultation.
  • Thyroid ultrasound specialist consultation.
  • Specialist consultation for ultrasound-guided fine needle puncture-aspiration of the thyroid.
  • Consultation for transition from paediatrics to adult endocrinology.
  • Consultation of hidradenitis suppurativa (Dermatology service).